Pathogen Screening for Possible Causes of Meningitis Encephalitis in Wild Carnivores From Saxony-Anhalt

Our first objective was to judge the potential impact of invasive species, as raccoons, in particular, outnumber the ubiquitous red fox in certain regions of Germany, including Saxony-Anhalt. In the period 2015–2017 alone, about 19,500 red foxes and 26,100 raccoons were shot per year in Saxony-Anhalt . Thus, these two carnivore species also represent the majority of animals sent in for rabies-testing. Other submitted animals are usually a few individual animals, such as raccoon dogs, martens of different species, and badgers .

Besides, it is impossible to draw a conclusion on the causative agent based on the histopathological findings alone. If viruses were found, in general, a non-suppurative inflammation possibly combined with gliosis, satellitosis, neuronophagia, neuronal necrosis, and/or vacuolization/demyelination, or malacia could be observed. Sometimes the non-inflammatory changes simply occurred alone. However, granulomatous inflammation was diagnosed only in the presence of T. Gondii antigen, nematode larvae, and/or when CDV was involved. During our examinations, combinations of other pathogens occurred in the minority of cases.

The authors acknowledge support from the German Research Foundation and Universität Leipzig within the program of Open Access Publishing. Gondii, and nematode larvae have also been found in wild carnivores. This would not only allow a more accurate assessment of the risk posed by infected wild carnivores but also estimate potential contamination of the surrounding environment. The diagnostic value of histopathology alone is limited. Thus, changes in the adjacent tissue might be overseen. This is also true for the selection of certain brain areas.

The treadmill test performed until exhaustion showed that aerobic capacity was significantly lower in young T1DM patients with glycemic control than in young healthy individuals. The treadmill test turned out a considerable oxidative and nitrosative stress among diabetics, which could have caused increased inflammation in this group as compared with healthy participants’ response to such effort. A large increase in VEGF levels in diabetics after exercise until exhaustion may put them at risk owing to the activation of retinopathy. About 6% of all examined animals in our study were positive for CPV-2-DNA, raccoons were significantly higher with 13.73%.

The two female puppets represent suffering in the camp, but the Soldier represents the Polish military’s resistance. Berezowska painted the Soldier in uniform, saluting the Holy Family . Kopijowska’s most significant adaptation to the szopka medium is her inclusion of multiple speaking roles for female characters, drawing strength from domestic representations of motherhood and childhood. The gender of the puppeteers could be a consideration as to why more female characters were included, such as the Polish Mother and female Häftling.

Study Protocol

The original text describes taking up the Polish rifle in rebellion, but in the Szopka Polska, the act of taking up arms is done on behalf of the Infant Christ rather than on behalf of Poland. These changes also situate the song in the context of the szopka. Berezowska and Kopijowska were among the many inmates interned for a political crime, involvement in resistance activities led by the Polish Underground, or a perceived slight against the Reich .

  • Kopijowska also referenced the Siege of Warsaw in 8–28 September 1939.
  • Dziad’s lines feature outdated Polish terms and phrases, highlighting his antiquated folkish quality.
  • ‘Kutno’ refers to the Battle of the Bzura, from 2–9 September 1939.
  • Maybe you could write subsequent articles referring to this article.

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1. Study Area

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Advances in treatment options, as well as modern monitoring methods and improved markers of glycemia have resulted in more effective glycemic control. Despite this, patients with diabetes may develop vascular complications, such as retinopathy. A significant role in its occurrence is played by growth factors, including vascular endothelial growth factor , growth hormone, and transforming growth factor β. VEGF production is enhanced in diabetic retinopathy, probably in response to hypoxia (Keenan et al., 2007). There are a number of substances that stimulate VEGF secretion; these include interleukins, growth factors, hormones, nitric oxide, and reactive oxygen species (Ihnat et al., 2007).

However, inclusion bodies were not detected in our study animals. With almost one-third of the CDV-positive animals (349/1,124; 31.05%) in our study, this observation agrees with the results of other German authors . In contrast, in Schleswig-Holstein among wild carnivores tested by IHC, not a single positive animal was found . Thus, prevalences seem to differ significantly due to different sampling periods, test procedures, and geographic regions.

One explanation may be that baseline stress values are related with glucose markers only within periods longer than 10 days and/or correlate with more severe hyperglycemia and/or stress response is more sensitive to current glucose control. We believe that the greater TOS/TOC percentage variation in the control group could be due to the fact that the exercise test in this group lasted longer than in the T1DM group. The physical effort performed by healthy men during the exercise test resulted in a greater production of free radicals. This could have caused a greater lipid peroxidation, which was measured by TOS/TOC.

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Samples were considered positive if the cycle threshold was less than or equal to 40. Results considered positive were repeated individually using a new sample from the individual animal for confirmation. In the following, these positive samples are referred to as infection as described in Pschyrembel even if there was no histomorphological correlate in the examined brain sections. Two individually confirmed negative brain samples and RNase-free water were used as no template control in each individual (RT-)qPCR run.

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The play responds to several levels of oppression under the Third Reich’s policies, not just the horrible conditions and ritualized violence in Ravensbrück, and this context is vital for understanding the references in the script and the motivations of the performers. The original lyrics of ‘Warszawianka’ glorify martyred soldiers, claiming that a soldier would earn glory if they died fighting for Polish independence. However, Kopijowska removed the overly nationalistic Romantic-era ideology and softened the angry and vengeful tone of the original song. The Polish Eagle’s call to rise and fight for independence is a blatantly nationalistic symbol and would have been censored, prompting Kopijowska to change the Soldier’s opening lines to describe being awoken by the Bethlehem Star.

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Therefore, we wanted to investigate which etiologies could cause the inflammatory processes in the central nervous system in all animals with meningitis and/or encephalitis, especially if RABV and CDV could not be detected. In Saxony-Anhalt little is known about the occurrence and outcome of any encephalitis-causing pathogens in the population of wild carnivores. In addition, we wanted to identify especially pathogens that have a zoonotic potential and therefore can be a threat to humans, domestic and zoo animals, or the wildlife population. If specific diseases occurred, an attempt was made to identify local epidemiological reservoirs of pathogens based on the distribution of diseases in the wildlife population studied. Potential transmission pathways and/or sources of infection should be considered and discussed on the basis of the results.

The formation of free radicals during physical activity depends on the type, intensity, duration, and frequency of exercise, as well as the individual antioxidant potential (Tofas et al., 2020). Very intense physical training can contribute to oxidative stress even in professional athletes (Tofas et al., 2020). Among type 2 diabetes patients, a positive correlation was observed between the percentage of total body fat and the total oxidant status [TOS/total oxidant capacity ] (Picu et al., 2017). A positive correlation was also xcritical rezension revealed between TOS/TOC and glycated hemoglobin concentrations, as well as between TOS/TOC and glycemic levels (Picu et al., 2017). Of note, total antioxidant status/total antioxidant capacity (TAS/TAC), measuring plasma antioxidant capacity, represents an alternative marker reflecting the redox state in the body in a more effective manner than the evaluation of a single circulating antioxidant . Inflammation in meninges and/or brain is regularly noticed in red foxes and other wild carnivores during rabies control programs.

Zdjęcie: Czerwona cegła,drewniane belki i farba tablicowa na ścianie w białej kuchni z drewnianym blatem

Despite negative rabies virus results, the etiologies of these cases remain unknown. Thus, the aim of this study was to provide an overview of the occurrence of pathogens that may cause diseases in the brains of wild carnivores and pose a risk to humans and other animals. In addition to RABV and canine distemper virus , a variety of pathogens, including members of Flaviviridae, Bornaviridae, Herpesviridae, Circoviridae, as well as bacteria and parasites can also cause brain lesions. Here, we applied similar methods to specifically detect suid herpesvirus 1 (SuHV-1), West Nile virus , Borna disease virus 1 (BoDV-1), canid alphaherpesvirus 1 (CaHV-1), canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2), fox circovirus , and Neospora caninum (N. caninum). Further, bacteriogical examination for the existence of Listeria monocytogenes (L. monocytogenes) and immunohistochemistry of selected cases to detect Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) antigen were performed. Of all pathogens studied, CDV was found most frequently (31.05%), followed by FoxCV (6.80%), CPV-2 (6.41%), T.

Polish Soldier

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‘Wester Platte’ refers to when the Polish army defended the Gdańsk harbor station, which was a strategic location for the ammunition supply of the Polish military. The defense was against the German siege, 1–7 September 1939, that lasted several days longer than expected. ‘Kutno’ refers to the Battle of the Bzura, from 2–9 September 1939. This battle was significant because, while the army in Poznań had to surrender, the soldiers were able to delay the attack on Warsaw. Kopijowska also referenced the Siege of Warsaw in 8–28 September 1939.

The carol or melody used for a puppet’s voice was as crucial to the portrayal of the character as their physical features. Moreover, it resists the tendency to superficially categorize music and theater productions created by victims of the Nazi regime as forms of resistance or solace without a nuanced exploration of the performers’ and artists’ motivations. Furthermore, camp cultural activities are difficult to compare due to wide variations in content and intended functions.

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